First the ramparts were built in 3rd century BC. and used in order to police within the city borders from the invaders.
The stone blocks which were used during the period of Lysimakhos who was general of Alexander the Great evenly shaped the walls. the integrity of the walls were supported steadily by the towers of the ramparts which can still be seen. These walls with towers used covered the big area between the Ephesus harbor and the Pion Mountain, on the slopes of which was the Grand Theatre located.
The ramparts of Ephesus were renovated durig the Byzantine period. After the city began to lose its importance and most of the population, it became harder to keep the stability of the walls and defend against the invaders. Therefore new city walls which covered a smaller part of the city were erected. On the side of Celcus Library along the Harbour Road city the walls which were form the Byzantine period are still visible, but they are not wellpreserved as Helenistic walls. Because of the earthquakes ramparts were damaged and during the following centuries the ancient city of Ephesus lost all of its importance then they were totally collapsed.